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Academic Resource Center (ARC) Research & Writing Resources

Trauma

You must give credit to your sources of information in every paper you submit.

Students often ask about the difference between a citation and a reference:

Citation : an in-text note about the source of information you present in a paper.  Citations are in the text of the paper. 

Reference:  information about how to find all articles, chapters, or online resources mentioned in citations. References are listed at the end of a paper 

Important points to consider:

  • You must cite your sources both in the body of the paper AND in a reference list
  • In text citations need only the author and year of publication
  • Reference lists includes specific detailed information on where the reference can be found
  • All citations and references must follow APA prescribed format

 

In Text Citations

General Principles

  • APA 7 change:  If citation has three or more authors always use et al.

                     Example: if article is authored by Smith, Jones, James, & Freud (2020) citation is Smith et al. (2020) or (Smith et al., 2020)

  • When a citation is part of a sentence, the author's names are not placed in parentheses, but the date of the publication is. You also use "and" rather than the ampersand (&).

Example: 

Smith and Jones (2002) investigated the effects of sensory deprivation on astronauts.They explained the importance of giving individuals a sense of space.

  • When the citation is not part of the sentence, the authors and the dates are cited in parentheses

Example:

Research has demonstrated the effects of sensory deprivation on astronauts (Smith & Jones, 2002).

 

  • When citing multiple articles by different authors in a single sentence, list the authors alphabetically by first author and use a semicolon (;) between the two articles.

Example:

Research has demonstrated the effects of sensory deprivation on astronauts (Baker & Taylor, 2010; Smith & Jones, 2002).

 

Lectures and Powerpoints

To cite a PowerPoint presentation or a lecture from a class, cite in the text but not in the reference list since this is considered a personal communication.  

Example:

(J. Axelrod, personal communication, May 8, 2017)

If the presentation is from a conference or an online source, you cite in text and in the reference list:

Example (in text):

(Kramer, 2017)

Example (in reference list):

Kramer, M.(2017, May 6). Using reference managers to do research. Powerpoint presented at William James College, Newton MA.

 

Web, Blogs, Twitter

 

In text citation:

If the author is known:

Example:

(Reca, 2017)

If there is no individual author, then use name of the organization:

Example:

(UNICEF, 2017)

Reference List:

If the author is known: 

Example:

Reca, A, F, (2017) The Dominican Republic's invisible children. Retrieved from http://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/domrepublic_98537.html

If there is no individual author:

Example: 

UNICEF (2017). About UNICEF. Retrieved from https://www.unicef.org/about/index_introduction.html

Multiple pages from a single site:

If you cite multiple pages from the same Web site, create a separate reference list entry for each page, with in-text citations that correspond to the appropriate reference list entry.

To differentiate these entries, use a letter after the year (e.g., 2016a)  assigning the letter by putting the references in alphabetical order by title in the reference list.  

Example:

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention(2017a). Preventing suicide. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/features/preventingsuicide/index.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,  (2017b). Injury, violence and safety. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/features/injuryviolencesafety.html

For more information: