|Reducing Bias: Principles|
Gender is a social construct and a social identity which is different from sexual orientation
Use gender when referring to social groups
|Racial & Ethnic Identity|
Race describes physical differences
People may identify their race as African American or Black, Asian, European American or White, Native American, Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander or some other race.
Race is a social construct that varies so be careful not to use racial labels on ethnic groups.
Ethnic Identity - shared cultural elements (language, ancestry, practices and beliefs
For example people may identify as Latino or another ethnicity
Use sexual orientation rather than sexual preference, or sexual identity. Avoid terms such as homosexual or homosexuality.
Frequently used terms: lesbian, gay, heterosexual, straight, asexual, bisexual, queer, polysexual and pansexual
Abbreviations such as LGBTQ, LGBTQ+ LGBTQIA and LGBTQIA+ may also be used to refer to multiple groups.
If using an abbreviation define it and be sure it is representative of the groups about which you are writing.
Be specific when necessary; when writing about transgender use that term not LGBTQ.
Be sure to define the term you are using. The word gay can be viewed as applying to all genders or more specifically to include only men. Describe what you mean by the term.
|Socioeconomic Status (SEO)|
Socioeconomic status (SES) includes income, educational status, occupational status and perceived social status. SES can express attributes of quality of life and be a predictor of psychological outcomes.
Because it is complex, SES descriptions should include a much detailed information as possible about an individual's income, education and occupation. When using the term "low-income participants" or "high income participants" provide information about the size of the household and the relationship between household income and federal poverty guidelines.
SES reporting can also include environmental conditions such as housing (does the participant rent or own a home or live in subsidized housing), neighborhood characteristics (median household income, percentage of unemployed persons or percentage of students who qualify for free or reduced price lunch in local schools).
Avoid broad, general terms such as "the homeless", "inner-city", "ghetto", "the projects", "poverty stricken"
Use person-first language and be specific:
Individuals have multiple identities and may be members of social groups that have experienced structural inequalities that can result in marginalized identities.
Black lesbian women may have experiences that are not the same as other Black women. They may experience discrimination based on their race, gender and/or sexual orientation. A Jewish adolescent may experience privilege being perceived a White but also be the target of anti-Semitic slurs at school and in social media because of their religious beliefs. An immigrant from Cambodia who has a disability may experience discrimination or lack of access to community resources because of their disability.
Identify relevant characteristics and group memberships of individuals: