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Academic Resource Center (ARC) Research & Writing Resources

Reference Basics

General Format: Articles
  • Name of article: Only capitalize first word and first word after a colon or proper names
  • Name of publication:  Capitalize all major words
  • Comma between each author
  • Use ampersand (&) before last author named
One author: Multiple authors:

Author,  A.A. (year). Name of article. Name of Publication, Volume # (issue #), page range. https//doiXXXXXX

Example:

Rodriguez, B. A. (2014). The threat of living up to expectations: Analyzing the performance of Hispanic students on standardized exams. Journal of Hispanic Higher Education13(3),191-205. https://doi.org/10.1177/1538192714531292

Author,  A.A., Author B.B., & Author, C.C.(year). Name of article. Name of Publication, Volume # (issue #), page range. https//doiXXXXXX

Example:

Sue, D. W., Capodilupo, C. M., Torino, G. C., Bucceri, J. M., Holder, A. M. B., Nadal, K. L., & Esquilin, M. (2007). Racial microaggressions in everyday life: Implications for clinical practice. American Psychologist62(4), 271–286. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.62.4.27

General format: Books
Entire book: Chapter in edited book:

Author, A. A., Author B. B., & Author C. C. (year). Title of book. Publisher.   APA 7 change: no publisher location

Example:

Smith, J., Jones, B. & James, W. (2001). The importance of experiential education. William James College Press.

Author, A. A., Author B. B., & Author C. C. (year). In A. Editor & B. Editor (Eds.) Title of book  (2nd ed., pp. XXX-XXX).  Publisher

Example:

Arnold, A. (2001). Merging the classroom and field experience. In J. Smith, J,  Jones & W. James (Eds.), 

The importance of experiential education (pp. 201-210).  William James College Press.

No Author/ Groups as Author: 

When an article has no identified author you may be able to use a corporate/ group  author- if a report is on a web site from a group (a corporation, association or government agency) you can use the association's name as the "corporate author".

Example:

National Child Traumatic Stress  Network (n.d.). Trauma-informed screening and assessment,Retrieved from http://www.nctsn.org/resources/topics/trauma-informed-screening-assessment

 

Statistics:

Government

 

Materials from government documents, such as reports.

If the organization or agency issuing the report has assigned a number to the report, put that number in parentheses right after the title.

If the report has individual authors, use those names in the citation.

If the report does not have an individual author, then the corporate author rules apply. Note the parent agency when using material from a suborganization.

Example:

U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, (2015). Evidence-based opioid addiction treatment (SAMSA Publication No. 2015-3620). Retrieved from http://www.samhsa.gov/ebt/opioid.pdf

 

Web sites:

Be sure to include the title of the  material that was used

Example:

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,  (2017). Injury, violence and safety. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/features/injuryviolencesafety.html

Legal Materials

These include:

  • Court decisions
  • Statutes
  • Legislative documents

Legal items originate from two different sources:

  1. State
  2. Federal

Each source also has multiple levels such as district courts, courts of appeal and supreme court (both state and federal).

This tutorial focuses on a few common examples. For more detailed information refer to Pages 216-224 of

the APA Publication Manual 6th edition.

Court Decisions:

Cite the name of the case and the year of the decision

In Text Citation:

The name of the case is in italics followed by year

Example:

Brady v. National Football League (2016)

Reference List:

Example: 

Brady v. National Football League, 249 F. Supp. 1076 (E.D. NY. 2016)

Reference Examples

Other Reference Examples

Articles and books are covered in Sections 10.1–10.8 of the Publication Manual. The most common types and examples are presented here. For the reviews of other works category, see Section 10.7.

 

Articles

Books &

Reference Works

Edited Book Chapters &

Entries in Reference Works

Reports

 

Journal Article

 

Magazine Article

 

Newspaper Article

 

Blog Post and Blog Comment

 

 

 

Book/ E-book

 

Diagnostic Manual

 

Classroom Course Pack Material

 

Religious Work

 

Chapter in an Edited Book/ E-book

 

Dictionary Entry

 

Wikipedia Entry

 

Report by Government Agency

 

Report with Individual Authors

 

Brochure

 

Ethics Code

 

Fact Sheet

 

 

Conferences Presentations

Proceedings

Dissertations &

Theses

Unpublished &

Informally Published Works

Conference Presentation

 

Conference Proceeding

Published Dissertation or Thesis

 

Unpublished Dissertations or Thesis

ERIC Database

 

Preprint Article

 

Data Sets

 

Data sets are covered in Section 10.9 of the Publication Manual. For the software and tests categories, see Sections 10.10 and 10.11.

 

Data Set References

Toolbox References

Audiovisual Media

 

Audiovisual media are covered in Sections 10.12–10.14 of the Publication Manual. The most common examples are presented together here. In the manual, these examples and more are separated into categories for audiovisual, audio, and visual media.

 

Artwork

Clip Art or Stock Image

Film and Television Musical Score

Online Course

or MOOC

 Podcast  

PowerPoint Slide

or Lecture Note

Radio Broadcast TED Talk

Transcript of an

Audiovisual Work

YouTube Video

 

Online Media

 

Online media are covered in Sections 10.15 and 10.16 of the Publication Manual. Please note that blog posts are part of the periodicals category.

 

Social Media

Webpages and

Websites

 

Facebook

 

Instagram

 

LinkedIn

 

Online Forum (e.g., Reddit)

 

TikTok

 

Twitter

 

Webpage on a Website

 

Clinical Practice

 

Open Educational Resource

 

Whole Website

 

App for Making a Reference List

How to Use the ZBib App to Make Your Reference List

It is a pain to format every reference for a paper correctly.   

Try using Zoterobib (zbib.org), which will format all of your references automatically

  • Just go to zbib.org
  • Enter the name of each  article or website you used
  • Make sure it is set for American Psychological Association 7th 
  • Then copy the bibliography to the clipboard
  • and paste it into your reference page

Watch this demonstration video

Hanging Indent Tutorial

Hanging Indent