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Academic Resource Center (ARC) Research & Writing Resources

Reference Examples

 Reference Examples

Articles and books are covered in Sections 10.1–10.8 of the Publication Manual. The most common types and examples are presented here. For the reviews of other works category, see Section 10.7.



Books &

Reference Works

Edited Book Chapters &

Entries in Reference Works



Journal Article


Magazine Article


Newspaper Article


Blog Post and Blog Comment




Book/ E-book


Diagnostic Manual


Classroom Course Pack Material


Religious Work


Chapter in an Edited Book/ E-book


Dictionary Entry


Wikipedia Entry


Report by Government Agency


Report with Individual Authors




Ethics Code


Fact Sheet



Conferences Presentations


Dissertations &


Unpublished &

Informally Published Works

Conference Presentation


Conference Proceeding

Published Dissertation or Thesis


Unpublished Dissertations or Thesis

ERIC Database


Preprint Article


Data Sets


Data sets are covered in Section 10.9 of the Publication Manual. For the software and tests categories, see Sections 10.10 and 10.11.


Data Set References

Toolbox References

Audiovisual Media


Audiovisual media are covered in Sections 10.12–10.14 of the Publication Manual. The most common examples are presented together here. In the manual, these examples and more are separated into categories for audiovisual, audio, and visual media.



Clip Art or Stock Image

Film and Television Musical Score

Online Course



PowerPoint Slide

or Lecture Note

Radio Broadcast TED Talk

Transcript of an

Audiovisual Work

YouTube Video


Online Media


Online media are covered in Sections 10.15 and 10.16 of the Publication Manual. Please note that blog posts are part of the periodicals category.


Social Media

Webpages and









Online Forum (e.g., Reddit)






Webpage on a Website


Clinical Practice


Open Educational Resource


Whole Website


Reference Basics

General Format: Articles
  • Name of article: Only capitalize first word and first word after a colon or proper names
  • Name of publication:  Capitalize all major words
  • Comma between each author
  • Use ampersand (&) before last author named
One author: Multiple authors:

Author,  A.A. (year). Name of article. Name of Publication, Volume # (issue #), page range. https//doiXXXXXX


Rodriguez, B. A. (2014). The threat of living up to expectations: Analyzing the performance of Hispanic students on standardized exams. Journal of Hispanic Higher Education13(3),191-205.

Author,  A.A., Author B.B., & Author, C.C.(year). Name of article. Name of Publication, Volume # (issue #), page range. https//doiXXXXXX


Sue, D. W., Capodilupo, C. M., Torino, G. C., Bucceri, J. M., Holder, A. M. B., Nadal, K. L., & Esquilin, M. (2007). Racial microaggressions in everyday life: Implications for clinical practice. American Psychologist62(4), 271–286.

General format: Books
Entire book: Chapter in edited book:

Author, A. A., Author B. B., & Author C. C. (year). Title of book. Publisher.   APA 7 change: no publisher location


Smith, J., Jones, B. & James, W. (2001). The importance of experiential education. William James College Press.

Author, A. A., Author B. B., & Author C. C. (year). In A. Editor & B. Editor (Eds.) Title of book  (2nd ed., pp. XXX-XXX).  Publisher


Arnold, A. (2001). Merging the classroom and field experience. In J. Smith, J,  Jones & W. James (Eds.), 

The importance of experiential education (pp. 201-210).  William James College Press.

No Author/ Groups as Author: 

When an article has no identified author you may be able to use a corporate/ group  author- if a report is on a web site from a group (a corporation, association or government agency) you can use the association's name as the "corporate author".


National Child Traumatic Stress  Network (n.d.). Trauma-informed screening and assessment,Retrieved from





Materials from government documents, such as reports.

If the organization or agency issuing the report has assigned a number to the report, put that number in parentheses right after the title.

If the report has individual authors, use those names in the citation.

If the report does not have an individual author, then the corporate author rules apply. Note the parent agency when using material from a suborganization.


U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, (2015). Evidence-based opioid addiction treatment (SAMSA Publication No. 2015-3620). Retrieved from


Web sites:

Be sure to include the title of the  material that was used


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,  (2017). Injury, violence and safety. Retrieved from

Legal Materials

These include:

  • Court decisions
  • Statutes
  • Legislative documents

Legal items originate from two different sources:

  1. State
  2. Federal

Each source also has multiple levels such as district courts, courts of appeal and supreme court (both state and federal).

This tutorial focuses on a few common examples. For more detailed information refer to Pages 216-224 of

the APA Publication Manual 6th edition.

Court Decisions:

Cite the name of the case and the year of the decision

In Text Citation:

The name of the case is in italics followed by year


Brady v. National Football League (2016)

Reference List:


Brady v. National Football League, 249 F. Supp. 1076 (E.D. NY. 2016)

App for Making a Reference List

How to Use the ZBib App to Make Your Reference List

It is a pain to format every reference for a paper correctly.   

Try using Zoterobib (, which will format all of your references automatically

  • Just go to
  • Enter the name of each  article or website you used
  • Make sure it is set for American Psychological Association 7th 
  • Then copy the bibliography to the clipboard
  • and paste it into your reference page

Watch this demonstration video

Hanging Indent Tutorial

Hanging Indent